The Neolithic of the Levant (Excerpt 112)
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Chapter 4: Neolithic 2 Megiddo (Pages 230-231)

Pre-History and Archaeology Glossary

Excerpts and Definitions and Addendums:

When Area BB on the north-east side of the mound at Megiddo was excavated to bedrock a cave was found which was filled with occupation debris. The floor of this cave, designated feature 40067, was 3 by 5 metres in size and the levels within it were called Stratum -XX (See Page 59 in *1). A number of flint artifacts, a few limestone objects and some bone tools were found in Stratum -XX.

The flint tools looked at in retrospect seem to be typologically mixed as is so much of the material in the lower strata at Megiddo. There were several tanged arrowheads (Page 141 in *2 Below). All closely resemble examples from Munhatta. 13 nickle blades were found in the cave which were segmented and deeply denticulated. This type is characteristic of the next stage of Neolithic rather Neolithic 2. There were several finely-denticulated blades of Neolithic 2 type which may have been used as sickle blades in the unpublished material in the Oriental Institute of Chicago; these should be typologically contemporary with the arrowheads. The remaining tools consisted of an end-scraper, burin, denticulates and a small flaked traachet axe (See Page 142 ibid). A few pieces of obsidian were also found in this stratum.

Some unusual bone tools were recovered from Stratum -XX. These were long spatulae made from rib bones and they were interpreted as needle shuttles used in weaving (See Page 140 in *3 Below). The typology of the arrowheads and the absence of pottery both suggest that Cave 4067 was occupied late in Neolithic 2. The segmented denticulated sickle blades would indicate a more recent date but these may have been made after the arrowheads. I believe that this cave was inhabited towards the end of Neolithic 2 and was contemporary with Munhatta and Beisamun. We do not know how extensive this site was since only a relatively small area of bedrock has been exposed at Megiddo but it is possible that a larger area than this single cave was occupied in Neolithic 2 .....


(Only References in English are Included)

*1 Megiddo II (Seasons of 1935 - 39)
G. Loud [1948] Volume 62
The University of Chicago
Oriental Institute Publications

*2 Flint Implements and Three Limestone Tools
J. Crowfoot Payne [1948] in
Megiddo II (Seasons 1935 - 39)
G. Loud [Volume 62] (Pages 141 - 144)
The University of Chicago
Oriental Institute Publications

*3 Bone Tools From Cave 4067
D. Bate and G. Crowfoot Payne [1948] in
Megiddo II (Seasons 1935 - 39)
G. Loud [Volume 62] (Pages 140)
The University of Chicago
Oriental Institute Publications

The History of the Ancient Near East Electronic Compendium