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Selected Excerpt on Arad
Winner of the 1993 Best Scholarly Book in Archae-
Canaanite Arad and Later Israelite Citadel in the Negev
Ancient Arad is located in the Negev Desert some 30 kilometres northeast of Beersheba on a hill that rises 40 metres above the surrounding plain.
During the 18 seasons of excavation conducted from 1962-1984 it became clear that the remains of ancient Arad are located in two separate areas and are from two distinct periods. The Canaanite city (3rd millennium BC) was located mainly on the southern slope of the hill. On the summit of this hill several fortresses were built in the period of the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah (10th-6th centuries BC) and also later during the Persian, Hellenistic and Roman periods (5th century BC to 4th century AD).
Arad is mentioned in the Bible in the story of the failed attempt to reach the Promised Land and in the list of the Canaanite kings defeated by the Children of Israel. There exists however a historical chronological problem with this biblical account as there is no evidence that Tel (Arabic mound) Arad was inhabited during the Late Bronze Age. Scholars suggest that the King of Arad mentioned in the Bible was in fact the ruler of the Kingdom of Arad; the Negev of Arad whose capital was another city.
The Canaanite City
During the Early Bronze Age (2950 - 2650 BC) Arad was a large fortified and prosperous city. It served as the capital of the important Canaanite kingdom [of the same name] which ruled over a large part of the northern Negev. The growth of Arad was part of the rapid urbanization of the Land of Israel during the 3rd millennium BC. Technological development such as the use of metal for plowing, the domestication of animals and the planting of fruit trees created conditions for the establishment of large cities even in outlying areas such as Arad ......
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