The Persian Empire of Ancient Iran
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Ancient Persia (Achaemenid Dynasty)

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The Uruk Expansion Cross Cultural Exchange in Early Mesopotamian Civilization
Guillermo Algaze (OI) [JSTOR] Current Anthropology
Volume 30 - No. 5 (Dec 1989) - Pages 571-608

2 Chronicles 36: 22 Now in the first year of Cyrus king of Persia, that the word of the LORD spoken by the mouth of Jeremiah might be accomplished, the LORD stirred up the spirit of Cyrus king of Persia, that he made a proclamation throughout all his kingdom, and put it also in writing, saying:

23 Thus saith Cyrus king of Persia, All the kingdoms of the earth hath the LORD God of heaven given me; and he hath charged me to build him an house in Jerusalem, which is in Judah. Who is there among you of all his people? The LORD his God be with him, and let him go up .....

King James Version With Strong's Numbers and
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Persia was an ancient empire, extending from the Indus to Thrace, and from the Caspian Sea to the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf. The Persians were originally a Medic tribe which settled in Persia, on the eastern side of the Persian Gulf. They were Aryans, their language belonging to the eastern division of the Indo-European group. One of their chiefs, Teispes, conquered Elam in the time of the decay of the Assyrian Empire, and established himself in the district of Anzan. His descendants branched off into two lines, one line ruling in Anzan, while the other remained in Persia. Cyrus II, king of Anzan, finally united the divided power, conquered Media, Lydia, and Babylonia, and carried his arms into the far East. His son, Cambyses, added Egypt to the empire, which, however, fell to pieces after his death. It was reconquered and thoroughly organized by Darius, the son of Hystaspes, whose dominions extended from India to the Danube .....

Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary (Hypertext Webster Gateway)

Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary (CrossWalk Bible Study Tools


During the winter of 1930-31, the Oriental Institute organized a Persian Expedition to conduct excavations in the largely unexplored mountainous regions east and southeast of the Mesopotamian plain. James Henry Breasted requested and was granted a concession to excavate the remains of Persepolis, an Achaemenid royal administrative center in the province of Fars. Thanks to an anonymous benefactress work started the same year under the direction of Ernst Herzfeld, Professor of Oriental Archaeology at the University of Berlin. Herzfeld served as director of the Persian Expedition until the end of 1934 when he was succeeded by Erich Schmidt who continued to excavate in the region until 1939.

Over an eight year period the Persian Expedition worked not only in the royal center of Persepolis but also at a number of sites that fell within a radius of 10 kilometers - the two prehistoric mounds of Tall-e-Bakun and Tall-i-Bakun, an Achaemenid tower and tombs of the Achaemenid kings at Naqsh-i Rustam and portions of the Sasanian city of Istakhr. In addition Erich Schmidt led two air reconnaissance and ground expeditions into the mountains of Luristan in 1935-36 and 1937 .....


The Oriental Institute in Chicago

Iran: Ecbatana - Achaemenid Period - Gold
Reign of Artaxerxes II (Circa 404 - 359 BC)

This snarling winged lion worked in gold repoussÚ attests to the exceptional skill of Achaemenid goldsmiths. The back of the horned feline's body and the slender twisted cord that surrounds it bear sixteen tiny loops for attachment to a garment or textile. Greek writers often speak of the tremendous wealth of the Persians and Herodotus writes that King Xerxes' troops "were adorned with the greatest magnificence ... they glittered all over with gold, vast quantitites of which they wore about their persons .....

The Oriental Institute - Chicago


1. *****The Library of Congress Country Studies
Iran - The Achaemenid Empire (550-330 BC)*****

2. HAKH┬MANESHI┬N: The Empire of Achaemenid Dynasty
Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (University of London)

3. Nave's Topical Bible Listings on Persia

4. Smith's Bible Dictionary on Persia

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The History of the Ancient Near East Electronic Compendium