Neolithic and Chalcolithic Wadi Rabah in Israel
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Neolithic and Chalcolithic Wadi Rabah

Excerpts and Definitions and Addendums:

Overview: Along with its variants Wadi Rabah is mainly known as a cultural phase found mainly near the coast of Israel in the Esdraelon Plain and in the Northern Jordan Valley. Other sites which include the Early Chalcolithic Rabah II Phase are Tel Batashi - Ein Jarba - and Munhatta .....

Jacob Kaplan conducted excavations at Wadi Rabah in November 1952 on behalf of the Israel Exploration Society .....

Excavations at Wadi Rabah in the Israel Exploration Journal
Volume 8 (1958) [Pages 149-60] : LC # DS 111 A1 I87

The Wadi Rabah Culture - Twenty Years After (1972)
Haaretz Museum Bulletin Volume 14 (Pages 23-30)
Library of Congress # AM 79 I8 T44a

This ancient site on the southern bank of the Wadi Rabah - one of the tributaries of the Yarkon River - is about 1 kilometre east of Tell Ras Ain near the present day Israeli city of Petah Tiqwa Map Centered on Rosh Ayin in Central Israel.

Two Chalcolithic levels and the mixed remains of two Neolithic phases contemporary with (1) Jericho IX (Pottery Neolithic A) and the (2) Yarkukian Culture were identified here .....

BackGround: The Yarmukian Culture flourished circa 5600/5500 - 5100/5000 BC in the so-called Pottery Neolithic Period ..... Moshe Stekelis dated the Yarmukian to be contemporary with the stages known as Jericho IX (Pottery Neolithic A) and the Neolithique Ancien of Byblos. See the online Journal Paleorient Article by Yosef Garfinkel .....

According to Professor Banning of the University of Toronto (Late Neolithic in the Southern Levant) Jericho IX (Lodian Culture) is a relatively poorly defined Late Neolithic culture which may be contemporary with or a little later than the Yarmukian .....

Outtake: It would appear that several centuries elapsed between the end of Neolithic 2 about 6000 B.C. and the foundation of Neolithique Ancien Byblos. The settlement of Neolithique Ancien Byblos was [therefore] founded about 5600 or 5700 B.C. rather than at the beginning of Neolithic 3. It then appears to have been occupied throughout Neolithic 3 until the end of the 6th or early in the 5th millennium BC (SEE Neolithic 3 Byblos) .....

Pre-History and Archaeology Glossary

Concerning the Chalcolithic Period of Wadi Rabah: Stratum I was found to belong to the Ghassulian Phase (circa 38003350 BC) of the Middle Chalcolithic Period. Stratum II is significant in that its pottery is formally similar to that of Jericho VIII: carinated bowls - bowl rim jars - and pithoi (storage jars). But what distinguishes the Wadi Rabah pottery from that of Jericho VIII is the fact that it is for the most part burnished. Burnishing appears only on bowls at Jericho VIII - and there is no evidence of burnishing whatsoever at Tuleilat Ghassul - suggesting that the finds associated with Wadi Rabah Stratum II not only antedate the Ghassulian Culture of Palestine but also that associated with Jericho VIII. In all these three phases of the Chalcolithic -- Rabah II/Jericho VIII/Ghassulian -- the pottery shows uninterrupted development.

Based on radiocarbon dates of the Wadi Rabah II stratum at Ein Jarba it appears that the earliest possible limits for this culture was 4000 BC .....

Some of the pottery of the three Chalcolithic phases is both similar and contemporaneous with Halafian ware .....

The wide geographical horizon of this culture is reinforced by surveys in Galilee where some sites demonstrate close affinities .....

It appears that after Wadi Rabah was abandoned sometime toward the end of the Chalcolithic Period that settlement resumed further west on virgin soil close to a spring - thus constituting the earliest settlement at Ras Ain .....

Main Textual Source: Articles by Jacob Kaplan in .....

The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land
Library of Congress # DS 111 N488 (1993)

The Anchor Bible Dictionary (1992)
Library of Congress # BS 440 A54

Selected PopUp Excerpt on Wadi Rabah

The Neolithic of the Levant (1978)
A.M.T. Moore [Oxford University]

Chapter 6: Neolithic 4 Wadi Rabah (Page 457)

Using the In-Site Google Search I was able to isolate these outakes about Wadi Rabah .....

Wadi Rabah was first settled in Neolithic 3 but was also inhabited in Neolithic 4 and during the Chalcoithic .....

We can be fairly sure that the transition from the Late Neolithic to the Chalcolithic in Palestine took place about 3750 or 3500 B.C. but we do not know for certain when it began .....

There are a number of sites in Palestine with characteristic structures - flint assemblages and pottery which were occupied later than Neolithic 2 and before the Palestinian Chalcolithic - that is the culture typical of Ghassul and related sites. I placed all these sites in a single period which I called the Late Neolithic of Palestine. This period was divided into early and late stages called Phases 1 and 2 .....

Kaplan found Phase 1 material in his excavations at the site of Wadi Rabah. The diagnostic pottery consisted of some painted sherds and a knob handle resembling the material found at Jericho. Among the flints were several of the broad segmented sickle blades also typical of Phase 1 at Jericho. The principal phases of occupation at Wadi Rabah were in late Neolithic Phase 2 and the Chalcolithic but this (Kaplan) evidence indicates that the site was inhabited briefly in the preceding stage also .....

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